An upsurge in club drug use has been observed in recent years in some cities of China, especially methamphetamine, which is quickly replacing heroin to become the most widespread drug across the nation. This study investigated the type of drugs used, syphilis and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the correlates for syphilis, HCV and unprotected commercial sex behavior among drug users in two cities along the east coast of China.

Method:  A cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010 provided demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, HIV knowledge and the utilization of intervention services among drug users.

Blood samples were tested for HIV, syphilis, and HCV infection.

Results: Of 805 eligible participants, 0.2% were infected with HIV, 3.7% with HCV, and 9.6% with syphilis. Of the participants, 96.6% were
methamphetamine users, 11.9% reported ever having used >=2 types of these drugs, and 11.4% reported ever injecting drugs.

In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, participants infected with syphilis were more likely to be female (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-6.5), have ever had commercial sex in the past 12 months (AOR=2.0, 95%CI: 1.0-3.9), be infected with HCV (AOR=12.1, 95%CI: 4.1-20.3) and less likely to have ever had sex with regular partners in the past 12 months (AOR=0.2, 95%CI: 0.1-0.6). Participants infected with HCV were more likely to have ever injected drugs (AOR=2.7, 95%CI: 1.1-6.5) and be infected with syphilis
(AOR=8.0, 95%CI: 3.5-18.0).

Participants who had unprotected sex with commercial sex partners in the last sexual encounter were more likely to be female (AOR=2.9, 95%CI:1.7-4.9), have middle school or lower level education (AOR=3.4, 95%CI:2.0-5.5), never have received intervention in the last year (AOR=2.1, 95%CI:1.2-3.6) and be infected with syphilis (AOR=4.2, 95%CI:2.4-7.4).

Conclusions: Methamphetamine is the predominant drug used among the drug users, the prevalence of syphilis and HCV infection are alarmingly high, and unprotected commercial sex was common among this group. The findings highlight the need for effective, multifaceted interventions addressing sexual and drug use-related risky behaviors among this group.

Further research is needed to better understand the causal pathway of the syndemics.






FARGO – KC Reeves, aka KC Ducheneaux, is wanted by the United States Marshals Service’s High Plains Fugitive Task Force on a North Dakota felony warrant for violation of parole. She was originally charged with possession of methamphetamine and meth paraphernalia.

reeves-kcHeight: 5’5”Weight: 145 Eyes: Brown Hair:   Brown Age: 30 Race: Native American

Do not try to apprehend the suspect. Please call (701) 297-7325 or your local law enforcement agency.






Parents have to warn their children about so many hazards in everyday life. Look both ways before crossing the street.

Don’t try to pet strange dogs. Don’t take candy from strangers – and on and on and on.

Now there’s a new one: If you see a 2-liter soft drink bottle outside, stay away from it. After a methamphetamines laboratory was found in New Martinsville last week, police Capt. Steve Kastigar explained the “shake and bake” method of meth manufacturing to our reporter.

It involves placing potentially unstable ingredients in a 2-liter bottle, shaking it, then leaving it to work.

Sometimes, the bottles can explode – which is why some meth makers leave them beside streets and roads to work, coming back later to pick up the product. “Shake and bake” bottles can be dangerous for that and other reasons.

Parents should warn children to stay away from them.



Just as law enforcement officers are starting to see a drop in clandestine meth labs, Franklin County and other parts of Missouri are being “flooded” with imported crystal meth smuggled in from Mexican “super labs.”

Franklin County narcotics investigators have been recording a slow, but steady, reduction in the number of local people making small batches of homemade meth, according to Detective Cpl. Scott Briggs with the Franklin County Narcotics Enforcement Unit.

In a recent 75-day period, the task force seized only two one-pot meth labs, Briggs said. “We’re not seeing as many as before.”

That’s mainly due to the grassroots effort over the last four years to pass local laws requiring prescriptions to purchase allergy and cold medications containing pseudoephedrine, the vital ingredient needed to make meth.

“The Mexicans decided to come in and flood the market when we started controlling pseudoephedrine,” Briggs said.

“The Mexican cartels have gone back to the old method (of meth-making) which doesn’t use pseudoephedrine,” said Detective Sgt. Jason Grellner, narcotics unit commander.

Users typically preferred meth made with pseudoephedrine because it packed a stronger “hit,” Grellner said. However, the crystal meth that authorities are seeing now is stronger and purer than before.

“The cartels have come up with a way to make very good crystal meth without using pseudoephedrine,” Grellner said.

“It can’t be replicated in the U.S.,” Grellner explained, because the chemicals used in the process are tightly regulated here.

“They (cartels) are flooding the southwest border with crystal meth as well as heroin,” he said.

K.C. Hub

Those illegal drug shipments are being funneled from border states to the Kansas City area and from there they are going to other points throughout the Midwest, Grellner said.

“Although the number of labs here is dwindling, we’re seeing large amounts of crystal meth coming in from Kansas City,” he remarked.

“We are working closely with out counterparts in Jackson County to investigate this,” Grellner said.

“We have networks of people here who make regular trips to K.C. to pick up crystal,” Briggs said. Those people make weekly trips and sometimes go every other day, he added.

An ounce of crystal meth sells for $1,500 to $1,700, Briggs said. But on the street it sells for $100 a gram, so a low-level dealer can make $2,800 from that ounce, he explained.

People also are getting the drugs sent through the mail and shipping services, Briggs said.

Hard to Investigate

Because meth cooks had to purchase pseudoephedrine in order to make the drug, it was easier to track suspects.

“With the imported crystal meth, we can’t just jump on the database and find out who has been buying cold pills,” Briggs said.

Also, the task force often received information about working meth labs from residents and law enforcement because of the strong odors emitted during the cooking process.

It’s more difficult to investigate suspects dealing and using crystal meth, Briggs said.

“It’s requiring more long-term investigations,” he said.

With small, local labs, task force officers could go to a home to speak with a suspect and if they smelled any suspicious odors they had probable cause to search the residence, Briggs said.

With crystal meth, if the homeowner won’t allow officers inside they have no probable cause to get a search warrant, he noted.

Briggs said citizens can help by taking note if they see an unusual amount of traffic at a home, with people coming and going, and contact the task force at 636-239-9700.


Jaimee Alkinani and her husband had just bought their first home in a quiet suburb of Salt Lake City, Utah. The three-bedroom house was in a nice neighborhood: tree-lined street, kids riding their bikes down the sidewalk, and friendly neighbors who waved when they passed. The family was on their way — they’d also just opened a small business near their home, had an 11-month-old child, and Jaimee was eight months pregnant. Life had officially started for the Alkinanis. But soon things turned for the worse.

A few days after they had moved in, a neighbor welcomed them with disturbing news. “Your house used to be a meth lab,” he said—a fact that the seller had never disclosed. So they called their realtor. He told them not to worry, that the house had been decontaminated. He even produced a certificate from the local health department to prove it.

Then the family started getting sick. Within five months, Jaimee and her husband developed sinus problems that required surgery. When their baby was born, he had serious lung issues that caused him to stop breathing a few times. He also wasn’t gaining weight, and was in and out of the hospital.

So the Alkinanis had their house tested for methamphetamine. The results made Jaimee put her kids in the car and immediately abandon her new home, with all the family’s possessions still inside. The house’s level of methamphetamine contamination was 63 times higher than the level at which the Utah Department of Health condemns a house.

Houses formerly used as meth labs, called meth houses, put their residents at risk of serious health consequences, says Stan Smith, a doctoral student at the University of California, Los Angeles, and director of the Drug Endangered Children Task Force, a division of the California Drug Enforcement Agency.

Upon moving into a meth house, people have experienced short-term health problems ranging from migraines and respiratory difficulties to skin irritation and burns. Long-term problems are less well known, but the results from a 2009 study in Toxicological Sciences suggest that methamphetamine chemicals may cause cancer in humans.  And because children have small, developing bodies and a tendency to play on the ground and put things in their mouths, they are especially susceptible to adverse health effects from meth toxins. “When we go into a lab, if there are children, the first thing we do is take the children to the hospital and assess them for contamination,” Smith says.

The chemicals used in methamphetamine production are highly toxic and range from pseudoephedrine—the main ingredient in meth and the active ingredient in decongestants—to any one of 32 other precursor chemicals. These include acetone, the active ingredient in nail polish remover, and phosphine, a widely used insecticide.

Home-cooking meth spreads toxins to every inch of the room where the meth was cooked and beyond. Nothing escapes contamination—the carpet, walls, furniture, drapes, air ducts, and even the air itself becomes toxic. “Ingesting some of these chemicals, even a tiny drop, can cause immediate death,” Smith says.

“When we go into a meth lab, we have on respirators, Tyvec suits, shoe coverings, gloves and eye goggles,” says Sgt. Cory Craig, a state highway patrolman and narcotics specialist based in northern Missouri. Police treat methamphetamine labs as hazardous waste sites. They remove meth-making hardware and chemicals, and often hire professional cleaning companies to sanitize the house.

The sheer amount of chemicals removed from labs is staggering. Consider Missouri alone. “Since 1998 we’ve seized 12,354 meth labs, 251,000 pounds of solid waste, and 118,000 pounds of toxic waste,” Craig says.

In dealing with toxic chemicals, most meth lab clean-up crews follow general guidelines. In the room where the meth was made, they scrub all surfaces, repaint the walls, replace the carpets and air filters, and air out the property. However, there are no national standards for meth lab cleanups—regulations differ from state to state. And in some states, getting a license to decontaminate a house is as easy as taking a few hours of class and a written test. “There are some bad certification methods out there. You could be a pizza delivery guy, study for a month, pay $250 and be certified,” said Joe Mazzuca, a methamphetamine contamination expert and CEO of Meth Lab Cleanup, a nationwide meth-lab-specific cleanup company based in Boise, Idaho. In the Alkinanis’ case, the person who decontaminated their house shirked his responsibility by cleaning too quickly and not using the correct cleaning agents.

And although some states, such as Colorado, Washington and North Carolina, employ effective regulations, some experts think that many may not. In Idaho, for example, a former lab is deemed “clean” when there is less than one tenth of a microgram of methamphetamine per square centimeter in the room where the drug was cooked. If the amount of meth detected is at such a low level, some state regulators think, the precursor chemicals are at low levels too. “We just check for meth,” says Jim Faust of Idaho’s statewide Clandestine Drug Lab Cleanup Program, based in Boise.

Like Idaho, many states only check for meth in the room where the drug was cooked. This method doesn’t account for toxic dust or harmful chemicals that may have traveled to other parts of the house. Another compounding factor is that many states do not require that the person cleaning be professionally trained or licensed in methamphetamine or hazardous waste cleanup.

Of all the toxic chemicals in a meth house, the drug itself is probably the hardest to clean up, but it’s actually the least toxic. The precursor chemicals pose the greatest health risk to residents of a former meth lab. When people smoke or shoot meth they face serious health risks, but they usually don’t die—they just get high. Many of meth’s toxic precursors, if smoked or injected, are lethal.

Even if a meth house is cleaned properly, some contamination experts worry that the toxins may hang around. Glenn Morrison, an engineering professor at the Missouri University of Science and Technology in Rolla, questions the adequacy of current meth house cleanup standards, emphasizing their failure to ensure the removal of toxins that are absorbed by the home. “These clean-ups tend to be somewhat superficial when it comes to permanent building materials,” he says.

Morrison recently received funding from the National Institute of Standards and Technology to investigate exactly how methamphetamine contamination resides in buildings. He hopes to figure out whether current meth lab cleanup protocols properly address contamination. “Building materials absorb pollutants, even if the materials are not obviously porous or fleecy. This contamination can be re-released, even after the building has been cleaned,” Morrison says.

Professional meth house cleanup contractors estimate that about 90 percent of meth houses are never uncovered, and their tenants will likely never know about their homes’ toxicity. Many of the meth houses that are discovered are listed on the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration’s (DEA) National Clandestine Laboratory Register or on other state databases.

The DEA’s registry lists 113,464 meth labs that were uncovered from 1999 to 2008. But this figure doesn’t account for any undiscovered meth labs and many meth experts think it’s an underestimate. “The record keeping is horrific. The DEA’s list can’t be relied upon because it’s completely voluntary,” says Dawn Turner, who started, a free, web-based resource for people who have unknowingly purchased a meth house. “I’ve heard estimates that there are a million to a million and a half meth homes and most of them are never found by the police department,” she adds. In the area where the Alkinanis lived, there were 250 known meth houses and most of their owners had no clue about their homes’ nefarious past.  The exact number of meth houses in U.S. is still unknown.

And although meth houses are more concentrated in certain states—Missouri is the meth capitol of the world, with 1,471 labs discovered in 2008 alone—there are meth houses in all fifty states. Consider a lab found in Framingham, Mass., a town with an average home price of around $350,000. Or one found in Norwalk, Conn., where the average home is valued at $694,000. “There is a misconception that these houses are crack houses. They are absolutely not. A meth house in Kentucky recently went on the market for $700,000 dollars,” Turner says.

With so many homes potentially contaminated by methamphetamine production, Turner estimates that thousands to tens of thousands of people have discovered that what they thought was the American dream—a nice home for the family—is actually an American nightmare—the potential cause of a range of health problems and a stack of medical bills. But is the issue receiving enough attention? Not for people like Turner. “States are really dragging their feet on this issue,” she says.

The Alkinanis agree. Because there were no meth lab disclosure laws in Utah at the time they bought their house, they have no financial or legal recourse. “We are paying the price for what one person did,” says Jaimee Alkinani. “My child will likely have a lifetime of permanent medical issues because of this house, and we are going into bankruptcy because we can’t sell the house.”






WEWOKA, Okla. (AP) — Authorities in Seminole County broke up anand closed out a three-year investigation.

Agents arrested 26 people Friday morning and officials say they broke up a drug ring that was being supplied from Mexico.

Oklahoma City television station KWTV ( ) reports the Oklahoma Bureau of Narcotics, District 22 Drug Task Force, U.S. Marshals, the Seminole County Sheriff’s Office and Seminole police took part in the operation.

They arrested 21 people on warrants and arrested five more people for drug violations.

Officials say the investigation started in 2011 and uncovered a distribution ring that was bringing pound a week of Mexican meth to Oklahoma.

The defendants are being held at the jail in Wewoka.



  • Eric Millerberg, 38, found guilty of child abuse homicide in Alexis Rasmussen’s September 2011 death
  • Five-man, three-woman jury last night also found him guilty of obstructing justice, desecrating a body and having unlawful sexual activity
  • He is expected to be sentenced to life imprisonment on March 18
  • When the girl died after being injected three times, Millerberg and his wife Dea dumped her body in a rural river bed
  • Dea testified against Eric, who she divorced in 2012, and was granted immunity
  • She has been charged with desecration  of a dead body and is awaiting trial
  • It was revealed the couple had an ongoing sexual relationship with Alexis
  • Eric stunned the courtroom about two days ago with radical transformation

A 38-year-old white supremacist has been found guilty of killing his 16-year-old babysitter with three  injections of heroin and methamphetamine following a night of sex, and dumping her body in a rural river bed.

Following a three-day trial, the jury last night also found Eric Millerberg guilty of obstructing justice, desecrating a body and having unlawful sexual activity with Alexis Rasmussen in September 2011.

article-2558117-1B6EC5A900000578-867_306x423 article-2558117-1B6EC66E00000578-399_306x423

The Utah man is expected to be sentenced to life behind bars on March 18, but his attorney said it’s likely Millerberg will appeal the decision.

As the Silent Aryan Warriors member stood stony-faced, Alexis’s devastated family wept and celebrated. The girl’s mother, Dawn Miera, is expected to speak at Millberg’s sentencing.

‘We are extremely thrilled about it. It helps with a little closure,’ the victim’s uncle Scott Rudd said. ‘But the fact of the matter is we still don’t have Lexi.’

Deseret News reported Millerberg was accused of injecting Alexis with methamphetamine and heroin in his North Ogden home on September 10, 2011. He and his wife then dumped the girl’s body after attempts to resuscitate her failed.

Much of the case against him came from his ex-wife Dea Millerberg’s testimony.

Dea said the couple started using Alexis – or Lexi as she called her – as a babysitter for their two  daughters in the spring of 2011.

They became friends and started drinking alcohol and smoking marijuana with  the teen before Alexis began requesting that they try harder drugs like  methamphetamine and heroin. Eventually they began paying Alexis  with meth.

According to Salt Lake Tribune, Dea testified that on the night of the girl’s death, she had picked up Alexis to baby sit her kids.


Found: A full autopsy could not be performed because Alexis’ body was so decomposed, but significant traces of heroin and meth were in her system

She said as soon as Alexis arrived at the house, Eric Millerberg helped her get high  by injecting her with drugs – once with heroin and twice with meth – into  her arm and neck.

Then, when she was ‘as high as she had ever been’, the girl and Eric Millerberg performed oral sex on one another. Dea said that she was not  involved in the encounter.

A short while later, the drugs had a negative effect on the teen and she  started ‘freaking out’. She reportedly felt disoriented and cold, so she asked if she could take a warm bath in the couple’s master bathroom.

After leaving her alone in the bath at her request, the Millerbergs checked  on her about 45 minutes later to find that she was still cold, so Dea wrapped her in a blanket and told her to lie down in another  bedroom.

The couple left her to smoke cigarettes, and returned about a half hour later to find her unresponsive.

‘She wasn’t breathing. She had mucousy stuff coming out of the right side of her mouth,’ said Dea, who was a licensed nurse and tried to  resuscitate the girl to no avail.

They then tried to figure out what to do next.

‘It really was a panic. The idea of  it was, we will lose our kids and go to jail, and there was nothing we  could do to bring her back,’ she told the court.

Eric Millerberg was on parole at the time for burglary and firearm  charges, and he was also known to be part of the Silent Aryan Warriors, a white supremacist prison gang.

The couple decided to dump the teen in a remote part of Morgan County near the Taggart exit of Interstate 84.

Leaving their six-year-old daughter at  home but taking their toddler with them, they ‘drove all over the place’ disposing of any evidence that may connect them to the crime.

Dea has been charged with abuse or desecration of Alexis’ body, a third-degree felony, and her trial is set to begin in April.

However the 40-year-old mother of two received immunity from the state for testifying against her husband, meaning what she said under oath in one courtroom can’t be used against her in her own trial.

Corrupted: Alexis Rasmussen, 16, reportedly asked the Millerbergs how to get meth and they started smoking the drug, along with heroin and marijuana, with the girl

Eric Millerberg

Close up: Eric Millerberg appears before the Second District Court in Utah on Monday, April 9, with his changed tatoo ‘Death’

Along with Dea’s ‘specific and graphic’ testimony, Alexis’s friend, Brenna  Cain, provided incriminating detail which painted a horrific picture of  ongoing abuse against the girls.

Brenna testified that she and Alexis often secretly got drugs, alcohol and sex from the Millerbergs, and when Alexis disappeared, they were the first  people she approached.

The  Millerbergs told Brenna that Alexis had left their house around 10pm that  night to meet a friend at a nearby elementary school. However text  messages to Alexis’ mother placed her at the Millerberg home until at  least 11.30pm.

It was  Eric ‘Peanut’ Smith, an inmate who met Eric Millerberg behind bars, who  eventually led police to Alexis’ body 38 days after she was reported  missing.

Eric  Millerberg had asked for Smith’s help moving the body deeper into the  trees, hoping snow would cover it before any hunters found her.

The girl was found with her legs folded against her in a fetal position, her lower half stuffed into a garbage bag.

Utah assistant medical examiner Joseph White testified on Friday that the girl’s body was so badly decomposed, it was difficult to identify her. Dental records and a fingerprint analysis finally led to a positive identification.

A toxicologist testified that reports showed she had ingested meth at least 24 hours before her death.


Trouble: At the time of Alexis’ death, Eric Millerberg was on parole for prior burglary and firearm charges, and he was also known to be part of the Silent Aryan Warriors, a white supremacist prison gang


Help: Police reportedly received a confidential tip about the whereabouts of Alexis’ body by members of Eric Millerberg’s gang

Weber County Attorney Dee Smith said the case hit home not only with Alexis’s family and friends, but police officers and prosecutors who worked on the case since she went missing.

The verdict showed the jury had little doubt about Eric Millerberg’s guilt, Smith said.

‘It’s not going to change what happened, it’s not going to bring her back,’ Smith said. ‘But it’s important for the family to know the person responsible is being held accountable and will spend a significant time in prison.’

Eric Millerberg’s attorney, Randall Marshall, told reporters his client was disappointed. Marshall said he expected guilty verdicts on some charges, ‘but I was a little disappointed in some of it’.

Smith had started his closing argument yesterday by showing the jury a picture of a smiling Alexis holding her little sister about one year before her death. Then, he showed a picture of her dead body covered by a muddy piece of foam in the woods of northern Utah.

Smith said the Millerbergs dumped her there, ‘discarded like a piece of trash’, and then lied to police for more than a month about her whereabouts.

Smith called Eric Millerberg’s actions with Rasmussen deplorable, saying he had supplied her with drugs and had sex on previous occasions as well, later bragging to fellow prisoners that he partied with teenage girls.

‘We’re not here because of the choices Alexis made,’ he told the jury. ‘We’re here because of the choices the defendant made.’

Smith reminded the jury that laws exist to protect teens who are prone to experimenting and making mistakes when they aren’t with their parents.

‘Ordinary people don’t inject little girls with heroin and methamphetamine,’ Smith said, later adding: ‘You don’t have sex with 16-year-olds when you’re a month away from turning 36. You don’t look for dates with juniors in high school.’

Marshall argued that the case against Eric Millerberg is based on lies by Dea meant to protect herself. He reminded jurors that she struggled to remember details during cross-examination about the night of Rasmussen’s death.

‘Dea Millerberg told a great story, but it doesn’t add up,’ Marshall said.


Guilty: Eric Millerberg is expected to be sentenced to life behind bars on March 18


Dark side: During her testimony, Dea Millerberg  said that Alexis asked the couple if she could have sex with them in  August 2011- a month before she died- and also requested to be paid with meth instead of cash

He said there’s no evidence, other than Dea’s account, to prove Eric Millerberg injected Alexis with the drugs.

‘How do we know Dea didn’t shoot her up?’ Marshall said.

He reminded jurors that the state medical examiner stopped short of declaring Alexis’s cause of death was a drug overdose.

Marshall also suggested to the jury that Dea was responsible for the death and recruited her husband to help her dump the body.

Earlier yesterday, an assistant medical examiner, Joseph White, testified that  Alexis had seven times the lethal amount of methamphetamine in her  system and high levels of morphine and amphetamines, and that likely  caused her death.

‘These are obviously significant results,’ White said. ‘Certainly, enough to explain the death.’

But White said he couldn’t rule out other possibilities such as  strangulation, stabbing or blunt-force trauma because the girl’s body  was badly decomposed.

‘It’s a foul circumstance, and it seemed clear that somebody else was  involved,’ White said, while later adding, ‘I felt it was most  intellectually honest to list the cause and manner (of death) as  undetermined.’

Defense attorneys didn’t bring any witnesses to the stand during trial, and Eric Millerberg also declined to testify.

He sat with his attorneys during the trial wearing glasses, and a suit and tie that largely hid his array of neck and arm tattoos. He occasionally spoke to his attorneys but remained largely stoic.


Accomplice: Dea Millerberg, seen here in an earlier court appearance in 2012, discussed how she helped her husband Eric dispose of Alexis Rasmussen’s body


Disturbing: Eric Millerberg and Dea Millerberg divorced in 2012 after a 10-year marriage. They have two children together


Spot: The couple- along with their toddler- drove around extensively disposing of Alexis’ body and all evidence. She was found here in Morgan County six weeks after her death